The great humanist scholar Sebastian Brant published Das Narren Schiff (The Ship of Fools) in Nuremburg in 1494. Under the influence of this book, many others in Germany found the image of the Fool in text and image a useful vehicle for social satire. Erasmus' In Praise of Folly was published in Paris in 1511 and in Basel in 1515. 01 French edition 1500, Paris. With introduction by Badius adressed to Women - Eve the first Fool. Alexander Barclay's translation of Stultifera Navis , (Ship of Fools), the second English edition, John Cawood, London 1570.02 03
02 from Sebastian Brandt, Hie vahet sich an das.... , Schonsperger, in Augsberg 1498. The Ship of Fools.

03 Robert Pynson's edition of Brant's Ship of Folys , 1509.04 images of the Fool from editions of Brandt(left) Lyons 1498) and (right) Basle (1507)

 05 Thomas Brewer, A Knot of Fooles, Grove London 1624.

06 The Foolscap Map copper engraving c1620 In the Map Collector June 1971 p47 Rodney Green in correspondence quotes from Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, a direct reference to a map made like a fool's head "all the world is mad..." 07 from Brant, Basel 1498. With spoof astrological chart and reflections of the Petrarchian Triumphs in the processional format.

08 11 14 other editions of The Ship of Fools

09  "The April Fool" . Vernon Hill's image of the April Fool from The Arcadian Calendar for 1910 ,

10. Walter Crane's A Masque of Days, 1901.

12 After Breughel, The Festival of the Fools , 37 x 50 cms.


13 After Breughel, Two Fools at the Carnival , 12 x 15 cms.

The Ship of Fools, Tobias Stimmer illustration Basle, 1572

The Ship of Fools, Brandt, Strasburg 1597

Dialogue with a Fool, Augsberg, 1522

engraving from Jocoserius 1730

an engraving by J.C.Kolb for Mitelli's Proverbi Figurati 1718

Francis Delaram, print of William Sommers, the King's Jester

Enid Welsford, The Fool, Faber and Faber 1935

John Southworth, Fools and Jesters at the English Court, Sutton Publishing, Stroud, 199*

Leslie Hotson, Shakespeare's Motley, ,Rupert Hard Davis, 1952