Images in Practice

Audit of Activities


"The action of DRAW... The formation of a line by drawing some tracing instrument from point to point of a surface; representation by lines; delineation, as distinct from painting; the draughtsman's art 1530; the arrangement of the lines that determine form 1753. That which is drawn; a delineation by pen, pencil or crayon, a sketch 17 1668." SOED

SECTION ........................ SUB SECTION................................ GOOD PRACTICE / REFERENCE



Chieh Tzu Yuan Hua Chuan, The Mustard Seed Garden Manual of Painting, 1679 - 1701. the 1887/8 edition republished by the Princeton University Press in the BOLLINGEN series 19063 [1956]. Although to the pedantic about painting, it is a fine manual of mark making and much recommended.

a list of the contents


Gene Byrne, A Complete Guide to Drawing, Illustration, Cartooning and Painting, Simon & Schuster, New York 1948, freehand drawing, design, color theory, medium, comic drawing, the human figure, children, portraiture, animals, Magazines and Books, in advertising, decorative painting, interiors and furnishings.

Norman Anton, Black and White Drawing Methods, Seeley Service, London 1961. Variety of line, increasing control, drawing with the brush, paper, shadow, stipple, line tones, surfaces, variety, leaving out, light and shadows, reflection, white on black, landscape, optical balance, composition, trees, clouds, atmosphere, view finder, rapid sketching, perspective, examples, planning a composition, dry-brush techniques, figure drawing, general hints.

Harry Furniss, How to Draw in Pen and Ink, Chapman and Hall, London, 3rd edition 1923 [December 1905]. Originality in pendrawing and design, To my Fellow-Students, Various methods and various means, A few hints to Special Artists (reportage, character, positioning and perspectival views of architecture), A Few Hints to Lady Students, A Little Captious Criticism of the Lady Art Student, The Illustrating of Books.

Henry C.Pitz, Ink Drawing Techniques, Watson Guptill, New York, 1957. "This book is not a history but a manual."a list of the contents.


John Austen, The ABC of Pen and Ink Rendering, Pitman London 1937, The Tools and the Materials, the ABC of pen and ink rendering, The Alphabet contd., a note on the use of the Reed Pen, The Method of Procedure (3 sections) Scraper Board Drawing, Dry Brush Work, Splatter Work, Growing Pains, some examples of drawing - Fred Sandys, Albert Rutherston and Austen himself. Many sequences of drawings to study. Examples of different types of line work.


G.Montague Ellwood, The Art of Pen Drawing, A Manual for Students, Illustrators and Commercial Artists, Batsford, London, 1927. a list of the contents.

Mervyn Peake, The Craft of the Lead Pencil, Allen Wingate, London 1946, "To make a drawing is to record an idea..." A Pencil, Clumsiness, How to Stare, Expressiveness An Example, Direction of Light, Line, Minor Shadows, Proportion, Rhythm, The Third Dimension, Exaggeration, To Judge Angles, The Head.

Percy V.Bradshaw, I Wish I Could Draw, The Studio How to Do It series, London 1948 [1941] How Nature Teaches Line Drawing, Value of the Line, The Third Dimension, Landscape and Architecture, Figure Drawing, Humorous Drawing, Animal Drawing, Perspective, Composition, A Master Draughtsman [Durer] - Bradshaw was, as Principal of the Press School, highly influential in the development of British Commercial Art after 1919.

Ashley Havinden, Line Drawing for Reproduction, The Studio, London, [1933] 1945. evolution of line and tone reproduction, six variations in half-tone, to the student reader, materials for drawing in line, Variations in treatment, mechanical application of tints

How To Draw series, The Studio London and New York, various dates, Composition (J.Ramsey Whereto), Trees (Gregory Brown), Horses (John Skeaping), Portraits (Charles Wood), Sail and Sea (Michael Leszcznski), Locomotives (Paul Mann), Hands (Oliver Senior), Churches and Cathedrals (Frederick Adams), Houses (Sydney Jones), Tanks (T.Cuneo), Farm Animals (C.F.Tunnicliffe)



tools of the trade

Maya Hambly, exhibition catalogue, DRAWING INSTRUMENTS, Their History, Purpose and Use for Architectural Drawings, RIBA Drawings collection, Heinz Gallery London 1982. Historical introduction, Historical Books, Lines, Dividing, Circles, Ellipses, Copying, Enlarging and Reducing, Squaring, Ruling, Curved Lines, Measuring to Scale, Measuring Angles, Measuring Areas, Proportions and Ratios, Perspective Aids, Cases of Instruments, Drawings, Drawing Boards and Tables, Computer-Aided Drawings.

Maya Hambly, Drawing Instruments 1580 - 1980, Sotheby's London 1988. History of the trade, Literary Evidence, and the categories above.

Henry Petrosky, The Pencil, A History of Design and Circumstance, Knopf New York, 1990 critically acclaimed history of the pencil, the industrial development, 20th century, engineering etc.

Henry Petrosky, Invention by Design, Harvard University press, Cambridge, Mass.,1998,see "Pencil Points and Analysis" - pressure, breakage and making of the wooden case pencil.




John Krill, English Artists' Paper, Renaissance to Regency, Trefoil, London, 1987. Papermaking by Hand, 16th and 17th centuries, eighteenth century innovations, Stationers, Papers and the New Style.





Anton Refregier, Natural Figure Drawing, Tudor Publishing New York 1948. Drawing materials, drawing from the models, the Clothed Figure, Anatomy, Light and Shade, Seeing and Thinking, Drawing by Old and Modern Masters, study of three outstanding modernists (Frank Kleinholtz, Philip Evergood and Yasuo Kuniyoshi), work of non-professionals and of Refregier himself.

Reginald Marsh, Anatomy for Artists, Dover New York, 1945, 1970. Front, side, back, head, arms/hands, legs/feet, proportions, figure sketches, and Marsh's own drawings of the Anatomical Classics e.g Vesalius and the Old Masters Raphael and Michelangelo.

Victor Perard, Anatomy and Drawing, Perard Publishing New York and Chicago, 1928, , Notes on Proportion, Proportion and Drawing, The Skeleton, The Head and Neck, The Torso, The Arm, The Hand, The Leg, The Foot.





a specialist list - drawing and perspective




Fusconi, Tofani and Rodino, Drawing, the Great Collectors, Istituto Bancario San Paolo di Torino, 1992, in Renaissance Italy, Connoisseurs in 18th century Europe, The Great Protagonists of Modern Collecting









Philip Rawson, Drawing, Oxford University Press, London New York, 1969, The Theoretical Base; Supports Materials and Implements, their Significance; Technical Methods; Rhythm and Space; The Subject:Its Nature and Function: then,The Different Kinds of Drawings.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910/11 ed, entry on Drawing, and generally accepted as a text read by most artists of this and subsequent periods. See beneath.

Susan Lambert, exhibition catalogue, DRAWING, technique and purpose, Victoria and Albert Museum, London 1981; Introduction; Technique (Drawing surfaces, Implements and media, Drawing Aids and Gadgets; Drawing as a Discipline (scenes of artists drawing, Drawn copies from the flat, Drawn copies from the round, Drawing from life, Technical Manuals and exercises); Drawing as imagination (Thinking on paper, Drawing for its own sake); Drawing for utility (presentational drawings, Drawings for Production in other media, Diagrams and technical illustration, Record and pattern drawings).




Sara Midda, Sketches from Southern France, Sidgwick & Jackson, London, 1990




Rudolph Arnheim, "Sketching and the Psychology of Design", in Victor Margolin and Richard Buchanan, The Idea of Design, a Design Issues Reader, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1995. Quotes also Gabriela Goldschmidt, "The Dialectics of Sketching", Creativity Research Journal, Vol.4.



Henry Reitlinger, From Hogarth to Keene, ... English story-telling artists and Illustrators, Methuen, London 1938. Storytelling. Black-and-White. The English Scene. The beginnings. The Hogarthian Age. The Sentimental Age. The Comic Muse. The Pre-Raphaelites. The Sixties. Some Reflections.

"If drawing is the art of giving one's ideas of the forms of nature, then all criticism of drawing must be based upon the question, "How far does such and such a work show an intimate knowledge of or intelligent visualisation of of the forms we know in nature ?" and no other principle of judgment can be applicable to all drawing alike. " Encyclopaedia Britannica 1910/1911.

"Drawing is the probity of art..." the French painter J.A.D.Ingres

"From the age of six I began to draw, and for eighty-four years I have worked independently of the schools, my thoughts all the time being tuned towards drawing." the Japanese artist, Hokusai.

"The first thing to seize in an object, in order to draw it, is the contrast of the principal lines. Before putting chalk to paper, get this well into the mind...." the French painter Eugene Delacroix.