Benjamin, ARCADES, p.21, "The flaneur plays the scout in the marketplace. As such he is also the explorer of the crowd. Within the man who abandons himself to it, the crowd inspires a sort of drunkenness, one accompanied by very specific illusions: the man flatters himself that, on seeing a passerby swept along by the crowd, he has accurately classified him, seen straight through to the innermost recesses of his soul - all on the basis of his singular appearance."











Everett Dean Martin, The Behaviour of Crowds, A Psychological Study, Norton, New York, 1920. Foreword. The Crowd and the Social Problem of To-day. How Crowds are Formed. The Crowds and the Unconscious. The Egoism of the Crowd-Mind. The Crowd a Creature of Hate. The Absolutism of the Crowd-Mind. The Psychology of Revolutionary Crowds. The Fruits of Revolution - new Crowd-Tyrannies from Old. Freedom and Government by Crowds. Education as a Possible Cure for Crowd-Thinking.


Gustave Le Bon, The Crowd A Study of the Popular Mind, Benn, London 1947, 19th ed., [1896 first UK translation].


Sir Martin Conway , The Crowd in Peace and War, Longman's Green, London 1915. Kinds of Crowds. The Nature of Crowds. Crowd-Units. Crowd Continuity. Crowd-Instincts. Crowd-Compellers. Crowd exponents. Crowd-Representatives. Crowd-Organisation. Government and the Crowd. Liberty and Freedom. Education. Morals. Religion. Overcrowds. War:Its Cause and Cure. The Contest of Ideals. The Crowd at War. The Value of the Crowd. The Just Mean.


Ortega y Gasset, The Revolt of the Masses Unwin Books London 1961 [1930 Spanish 1st], The Coming of the Masses. The Rise of the Historic Level. The Height of the Times. The Increase of life. A Statistical Fact. The Dissection of the Mass Man begins. Noble Life and Common Life, or Effort and Inertia. Why the Masses Intervene in Everything, and why their Intervention is Solely by Violence. The Primitive and the Technical. Primitivism and History. The Self-Satisfied Age. The Barbarism of 'Specialisation'. The Greatest Danger - the State. Who Rules in the World ? We arrive at the Real Question.


Elias Canetti , Crowds and Power, Gollancz London 1962 [1960]. The Crowd.

The Pack. The Pack and religion. The Crowd in History. The Entrails of Power. The Survivor. Elements of Power. The Command. Transformation. Aspects of Power. Rulers and Paranoiacs. Epilogue. Bibliog.


Charles Mackay, Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, Richard Bentley, London, first edition 1841, and 2nd 1852 [reprint Harmony New York 1980]


Bruce Mazlish , The Leader, the Led and the Psyche, Essays in Psychohistory Wesleyan University Press, Hanover and London, 1990.


Mark Harrison, Crowds and History. Mass Phenomena in English Towns 1790 - 1835, Cambridge University Press, 1988


W.Trotter , Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War Fisher Unwin, London 1916, sixth impression by 1921.






Josephine Klein, The Study of Groups, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1969 [1956] The Performance of Tasks in Groups. Differentiation in the Group. The Spread of Information. The Need for Organisation. The Evolution of Norms. The Evolution of Likes and dislikes. Sentiment in the Group - the expressive dimension. Communication as Adaptive Behaviour. Decision-making as Instrumental behaviour: The Dimension of Control.The Self-Defeating Process : Latent Pattern Maintenance.

leading the crowd

Rene Fulop-Muller, Leaders, Dreamers and Rebels, An Account of the Great Mass-Movements of History and of the Wish-Dreams that Inspired them, The Viking Press, New York 1935.Translated from the German by Eden and Cedar Paul. See particularly The Birth of the Masses, pp348 ff. Good illustrations of crowds.

Lord Raglan, The Hero, A Study of Tradition, Myth and Drama, Methuen, London, 1936.


Thomas Carlyle, On Heroes, Hero Worship, and the Heroic in History, Chelsea House, New York, 1983, [ lectures given in 1840]




Edgar R.Jones, The Art of the Orator, Edgar R,Jones, Esq., with a foreword by Lloyd George, Adam and Charles Black, London, 1912. Introductory. The Problem. Chapter III. The Scientific Basis. Presentation. Association. Attention. Memory. Imagination, Judgment and Belief. To Move the Passions. The Influence the Will. Chapter IV LOGIC. Chapter V Clearness. Strength. Figures of Speech. Chapter VI Types of Audience.





Walter Benjamin, ARCADES, Harvard Univ.Press, Cambridge, 1999.

David Reisman with Nathan Glazer and Reuel Denney, The Lonely Crowd, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1950.





George Rude, The Crowd in the French Revolution, O Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1999. Paris on the Eve of the revolution. The Revolutionary Crowd in action. (Prelude to Revolution. July 1798. The March to Versailles. The Massacre of the Champ de Mars. The Fall of the Monarchy. The Triumph of the Mountain. Thermidor. Germinal-Prairial. Vendemaire). The Anatomy of the revolutionary Crowd (The Composition of revolutionary crowds 1787 - 1795. The Motives of revolutionary Crowds. The Generation of Revolutionary Activity. The 'Revolutionary Crowd' in History. APPENDIXES. see The Revolutionary Calendar.

Christopher Hibbert, King Mob, The Story of Lord George Gordon and the Riots of 1780, Longman's Green, London 1958.


Stanley Cohen, FOLK DEVILS 7 MORAL PANICS The Creation of the Mods and Rockers, Paladin London 1973.

literary representations

pictures of crowds

miscellaneous influences

I.P.Pavlov, Conditioned Reflexes. Dover, New York, 1960 [1927 Oxford University Press] lectures given in 1926 in St.Petersburg on reflexes and inhibitions, a final section on what we learn from experimenting with animals can be applied to human beings.


Benjamin, ARCADES, The Incomparable force of Poe's description of the crowd. p.285


Fulop-Muller, "Thus mass production necessitated a forcible normalisation of needs, classifying human beings in accordance with its own standards , introducing fictive qualities into life, and creating the illusion of uniformity where nature had created multiplicity." p.355