"Now the language of images is everywhere. Everywhere it has displaced the language of ideals. If the right image will elect a President, or sell an automobile, a religion, a cigarette, or a suit of clothes, why cannot it make America herself - or the American Way of Life - a saleable commodity all over the earth ? In discussing ourselves, our communities, our corporations, our nation, our leaders, ourselves, we talk the language of images."

Daniel Boorstin, The Image, or, What Happened to the American Dream, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London, 1961








Peter Taylor The Smoke Ring; Tobacco, Money & Multi-National Politics Sphere London 1984 pb

Maurice Corona Trust in Tobacco; The Anglo American Struggle for Power Joseph London 1975 hb

Harris Lewine Good-Bye to all That McGraw-Hill NY 1970 hb




Don Herold Humour in Advertising and how to make it pay McGraw-Hill NY 1963 (contemporary ideas)

Stephen Baker Advertising layout and art direction McGraw-Hill NY 1959



Louis Cheskin Why People Buy; Motivational Research and its successful application Business Publications, London 1960 (1959) (Chapter 15, The knack of buying art. Chapter 16 Photography - how, when and where ?)

Martin Mayer Madison Avenue usa Penguin Harmondsworth 1958 pb

Roland Marchand Advertising and the American Dream; Univ.Calif Press 1986 Making Way for Modernity 1920 - 1940

Joe McGinniss The Selling of the President 1968 Trident NY 1969

Simon J.Bronner Consuming Visions; Accumulation and Display of Goods in America 1880 -1920 Mail order catalogues, general consumer culture Winterthur Museum 1989

John Gunther Taken at the Flood, The Story of Albert Lasker, pioneer advertiser Hamish Hamilton London 1960 (Amer.Tob.Co.)

Susan Strasser Satisfaction Guaranteed; The Making of the American Mass Market Pantheon NY 1989

Bart Cummings Advertising's Benevolent Dictators, interviews with the great NTC Lincolnwood 1987

Trevor Millum Images of Woman; Advertising in Women's Magazines [mainly UK] Chatto & Windus London 1975

Kathy Myers Understains. The Sense and Seduction of Advertising Comedia London 1986.

David Ogilvy Ogilvy on Advertising Pan London 1983. Case Studies. Excellent start.

Judith Williamson Decoding Advertisements; Ideology and Meaning in Advertising Boyars L 1983 - a classic and a bit dated.

Enis and Cox Marketing Classics (articles from Journal of Marketing and Harvard Allyn and Bacon Boston 1985 Business Review 1950's and 1960's)

International Ad.Assoc Controversy Advertising; How Advertisers Present Points of View in Public Affairs Hastings House NY 1977

J.L.Watkins The Hundred Greatest Advertisements Who Wrote Them and What They did Dover NY 1959. What's the Visual Equivalent ?

G.C.Warren (ed)The Foods we Eat (study of consumption, chapters by the meal, by Crawfords) Cassell London 1958


and body


Shearer West The Image of the Actor; Verbal and Visual Representation in the Age of Garrick and Kendal , Pinter London 1991

Charlotte Wolf A Psychology of Gesture Methuen London 1945. See also her The Human Hand

Roberta E.Pearson Eloquent Gestures. The Transformation of Perfromance Style in the Griffiths Biograph Films, University of California Press, Berkeley 1992. Hystrionic versus Verisimilar Codes.

Desmond Morris, Petere Collett, Peter Marsh and Marie O'Shaughnessy Gestures Their Origin and Distribution, Cape London 1979

J.A.V.Bates, "The Communicative Hand", in Jonathan Benthall and Ted Polhemus, The Body as a Medium of Expression, Allen Lane/ ICA London 1975








Art Directors' Annuals for the following years

Vol15 1936

Vol16 1937

Vol26 1947

Vol27 1948 What Good is an Art Director ? Harry O'Brien

Vol28 1949

Vol29 1949 - 1950 ; Round Table discussion (Beall, Giusti, Golden, Al Parker etc)


Vol31 1951-2 The AD and National Taste

Vol32 1953

Vol33 1954 designed by Bradbury Thompson

Vol34 1955

Vol37 1958

Vol45 1966

general guide to american art directors





a general guide




general list









JULY 1935 launching The Fortune Survey - cigarette consumption p112 good survey of smoking habits in some detail

OCT 1935 The Fortune Survey contd

MARCH 1936 "Philip Morris" excellent background, good photographs

JULY 1937 "Old Gold Contest" using rebus puzzles

AUGUST 1938 "Reynolds' Tobacco" excellent detail of the design and building of the Camel campaigns

MARCH 1947 "Machine as Salesman" the Rowe Corporation, good drawings and detail

OCT 1949 "Philip Morris comeback...." the no.4 cigarette, the chairman's contributuin and the salesman's day

MAY 1950 "Benson and Hedges" the minor sensation of Parliament cigarettes, good article anon with details of top 10 fags in US in 1949

DEC 1953 "The Uproar in Cigarettes" Kings, filter tips and switching brands

DEC 1957 "R.J.Reynolds' King-Size Profits" (T.P.Murphy) - overtaking American Tobacco - reference to cancer scare - new brands etc

JANUARY 1963 "Embattled Tobacco's New Strategy", anon. excellent and much recommended on consumption and the health issues



SEPT 1932 a survey of radio advertising -Lucky Strike mentioned

MAY 1947 "How Well can Americans Live ?" p,130 what they eat, drink, and smoke

NOV 1947 issue devoted to selling, see image montage by Will Burtin p 108 the American Bazaar

APRIL 1952 "Why do People Buy ?"

AUGUST 1953 "The Changing American market" fisrt of series the rise of the monied middle classes

SEPT 1952 "The Language of Advertising " W.H.Whyte, discarding the old cliches

AUGUST 1954 "The Consumer Markets 1954 - 1959" Burck and Parker

SEPT 1956 "The Amazing Advertising Business" first of a series, Daniel Seligman; analysing the advertising boom

DEC 1956 Seligman no. 3

OCT 1956 "What a Country !" first of Burck article, see June

JUNE 1959 "How America's Taste is changing" second of a series by Gilbert Burck on the markets of the 1960's