a page from Jakob Kobel's Rechenbiechlein of 1514.

a characteristic page from Pietro Borghi's 1488 edition of Chi de arte matematiche ha piacere published in Venice.
03 Filippo Calendri, De Arithmetica , published in Florence in 1491/2

09 Apianus, Eyn Newe umnd wolgegrundte underweysung aller Kauffmanss Rechnung in dreyen buchen ....
Georgius Apianus, Ingolstadt, 1527; the publication puts particular emphasis on the explanation of mathematical propositions with diagrams and associated imagery - here an early, perhaps the first, visual explanation of a Pascal triangle.

Smith/Plimpton, "Two curious forms of multiplication", from G. and G.Taglienti, Libro dabaco che insegna a fare ogni ragione mercadantile..., Milan 1541. The panels were reproduced side by side. To help in loading I have stacked them vertically.

Claude de Boissiere , L'Art de Arythmetique contenant toute Dimention, tres singulier et commode, tant pour l'art militaire que autres calculations, Annet Briere, Paris 1554.Systems of counting and calculation with clusters of cubes.

a page from Johannes Thomas Freigius' general book on education with an influential section on mathematics, Basel 1582,

the standard teachings of mathematical calculation with additions by a student, c1580.

02 from Edward Hatton, The Merchant's Magazine , London 1695, and one of nine specimens of the author's calligraphic representation of mercantile truths and techniques.

Palmer's Computing Scale 1852 improved by John E.Fuller, New York and shown at the Great exhibition in London in 1851