01 Johann Zahn, Oculus Artificialis Telediotricus sive Telescopium ,Frankfurt, 1686. This book printed Zahn's researches into the telescope and microscope. There is a quality to the illustrations that make them almost Magrittian. The engraving includes a design for a projector set up outside the room.

02 Optics Alhazen, The Optics (Opticae Thesaurus...) , Eusebius Episcopius & Nikolai, Basel, 1572, titlepage with examples of the application of optics.
and one of the most compacted systems of visual imagery on a titlepage for a book.

03 Athanasius Kircher, Ars magna Lucis et umbrae in decem Libros digesta , Grignan for Scheus, Rome 1646. The figures represent a hierarchy of light and perception from the Godhead to generated light to reflected light and the baseness of the earth. For another dense image see the Section on gathering animals for the Ark




Traber, Nervus Opticus, diagram of Vision 1675

Cavalieri, La Specchio Ustorio... 1650

Cornelis Mayer, optical advice, book on the Tiber, 1685

Daza de Valdes, Uso de los antois para toda genero de Vistas, Seville 1623, the earliest book on spectacles and lenses

A.Kircher, a magic lantern, ARS MAGNA... 1671

A Mirage Photographed 1950

LOBKOWITZ, Optical Distortions, the basics of Geodesics