left; Albrecht Durer, Melancholia, engraving, 18 x 24 cms, dated 1514. Click for image, commentary and details from The Portfolio Magazine 1880.

middle top; James Barry in the standard melancholy pose for his self-portrait, mezzotint, begun 1802, and measuring 25 x 35 cms.

middle lower; titlepage to Richard Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy , Oxford 1638.

right; Linley Sambourne uses Durer's great Melancholia print as a basis to project the political problems endured by France, in the shape of Marianne. Punch April 29th 1893, p.194 18 x 24cms; The bomb reflects Anarchist 'Outrages ' in the capital,and the War Dog (and grindstone) "La Revanche" conjures the spectre of excessive French nationalism threatening German interests.

see ISAAC OLIVER and JOSEPH WRIGHT OF DERBY, the great melancholic horizontals.

see also The Four Elements


Barnett Freedman, illustration to BURTON, Cowell's Handbook to type, 1947

Salvator Rosa, Democritus in Meditation, etching 1660