The Zodiacal (Melothesic) Figure.
TOP 01 from Ketham's Fasciculus Medicinae , Venice, 1493. Each part of the body was influenced by a Zodiacal association, often determining the times and nature of surgery.
This image is reprinted from The Shepherd's Calendar, published by Nicholas Le Rouge, Troyes, c1495. 5 x 14cms.
from a rare work on Chirurgy (Surgery) perhaps by Lanfrancus of Milan, and published in Augsberg by Froschauer in 1515. The positioning of the Crab to the chest is not a diagnosis of Cancer, but conforms to the symbolism of the Melothesic figure.
from Johann Stoeffler, Calendarium Romanum Magnum ,Oppenheim, Jacob Kobel, 1518

woodcut from the Sarum Liturgy , Paris 1510.
Aries - Ram - Head
Gemini - Twins - arms
Leo - Lion - heart
Libra - Scales - Pelvis
Sagittarius - Man Horse - Thighs
Aquarius - Waterman - Lower leg
Taurus - Bull - Neck and Throat
Cancer - Crab - Chest and Breasts
Virgo - Virgin - Womb
Scorpio - Scorpion - Sexual Parts
Capricorn - Goat Fish - Knees
Pisces - Fishes - Feet
See Fred Gettings, The Secret Zodiac, Routledge Kegan Paul London 1987.
BOTTOM RIGHT And in a late incarnation in an American Almanac.